Neutrinovoltaic Technology: generating electricity with neutrinos

Credit: prnewswire.com

Neutrinos are born during the process of nuclear fusion in the sun and thus, the sun is the source of most of the neutrinos that are passing through the atmosphere at any moment. It is estimated that about 100 billion solarneutrinospass through our thumbnail every second. Neutrinos were first detected in 1956 by Fred Reines of the University of California at Irvine and the late George Cowan. They showed that a nucleus undergoing beta decay emits a neutrino with the electron, a discovery that was recognized with the 1995 Nobel Prize for Physics.

Atmospheric neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in theatmosphere and are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Aneutrinois a subatomi cparticle that is very similar to an electron, but has no electrical charge and a very small mass, which might even be zeroand1/2unit of spin. Neutrinos belong to the family of particles called leptons, which are not subject to the strong force. Rather, neutrinos are subject to the weak force that underlies certain processes of radioactive decay. Perhaps the most important thing to know about neutrinos is that they come in three types, or flavors:electron neutrino(νe), muonneutrino (νμ) and tau neutrino(ντ). Neutrinos are one of the most abundant particles in the universe because they have very little interaction with matter, however, they are incredibly difficult to detect.

Neutrino flux

Neutrinos are one of the most abundant particles in the universe because they have very little interaction with matter. There is no risk associated with neutrinos-either from naturally produced neutrinos or from factory produced neutrinos. Trillions of neutrinos, in fact, pass through our body every second without doing any harm to us. The highest flux of solar neutrinos come directly from the proton-proton interaction, and have a low energy, up to 400 keV. The amount of neutrino flux at Earth is around 7·1010particles·cm−2·s−1. It is estimated that about 100 billion solar neutrinos pass through our thumbnail every second. Neutrinos areimportantto our understanding of the kind of processes that go on in the sun, and also animportantbuilding block for the blueprint of nature. Despite how common they are, neutrinos are extremely difficult to be detected due to their low mass and lack of electric charge. However, no neutrino flavor information is left behind. In a charged current interaction, a high-energy neutrinotransf orms into its partner lepton (electron, muon, or tau).

Neutrino energy

The energyof aneutrinodepends on the process that formed it.The lowest-energy neutrinos we've ever detected have so much energy that their speed must be, at minimum, 99.99999999995% thespeed of light, which means that they can move no slower than 299,792,457.99985 meters-per-second.Becauseneutrinos haveno charge, there's no way to use electric fields to accelerate them and give them moreenergy, the way scientists candowith particles such as protons. More energetic reactions will create more energetic neutrinos.When the neutrino interacted with a cesium or iodine nucleus, the crystal would emit about 10 photons' worth of dim light. Understanding thiscollisioncould help physicists study weirder properties ofneutrinos-and complicate their search for dark matter. But recently this property of neutrinos is being used to generate electricity using voltaic effect same as in case of photoelectric based solar cells and this technology is being named as neutrinovoltaic technology. The photovoltaic effect makes it possible to take energy from the photons, and is a promising way of renewable energy generation. Sun light is the constant and renewable source of photons and we get photoelectric effect in day time but not in the night. On the other hand, neutrinos travel in space and through matter at any time of the day. They also carry energy and scientists are finding ways to get their energy being converted into electricity to make it useful for mankind and neurtionvoltaic technology is proving a promise in this direction.

Neutrinovoltaic technology

The Neutrino Energy Group cooperates with a worldwide team of scientists and various international research centers, which deal with application research, the conversion of invisible radiation spectra of the sun, among other things the neutrinos (high-energy particles, which ceaselessly reach the earth) into electric power. Thus, neutrinovoltaic technology presents a solution that never stops working. Instead of drawing energy from the visible spectrum of light, the neutrinovoltaic technology developed by the Neutrino Energy Group derives electrical energy from neutrinos, which are invisible particles that bombard the Earth in roughly equal numbers every moment of every day. Neutrinovoltaic technology even harnesses the untapped power of electrosmog, which is the electromagnetic energy produced by manmade electronic devices. This revolutionary technology developed by the Neutrino Energy Group harvests a small amount of the kinetic energy of neutrinos as they pass through everything we see, and this kinetic energy is then transformed into electricity.

Neutrino Energy Group points out that ground was broken in the field of neutrino power in 2015 when two independent scientists, Takaaki Kajita in Japan and Canadian Arthur McDonald, proved that neutrinos – tiny rays of cosmic particles that permeate almost everything in the universe – did in fact have mass. And, as Einstein’s Relativity Theory goes, E=mc2, or everything with mass also contains energy and for this discovery, the two scientists were each bestowed the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physics. The next step, and one that Neutrino Energy has embarked on, was to develop what was previously thought to be impossible - harnessing that energy for power generation. In principle, harvesting neutrinos as an energy source is similar to that of a traditional photovoltaic (PV) solar cell. Neutrinos are not captured; instead a portion of their kinetic energy is taken and converted into electricity.

Neutrino power cell

Neutrino Energy Group has devised a metamaterial composed of layers of ultra-thin graphene and silicon. When adhered to a metallic substrate, this material vibrates as it is struck by neutrinos. Since both vertical and horizontal vibrations are caused at the same time, a resonance is created that can then be converted into electrical energy. The Neutrino Power Cell is made of layers of silicon and carbon, which are applied to a metallic substrate with surgical precision so that when neutrinos hit them, it results in a resonance. Neutrino Energy discovered how to build such a cell that could convert the optimal level of resonance into resonating frequency on an electrical conductor, and then capture this energy. At present, neutrinovoltaic technology has been demonstrated to work in laboratory settings and the Neutrino Energy Group are hard at work developing a consumer-grade product that will be useful in a variety of applications. At first, the Neutrino Energy Group expects that neutrinovoltaic energy will be used to power smartphones, laptops, pacemakers, and other small devices, but over time, it will be possible to scale up this energy technology to the point that it can cover the electrical needs of appliances and every other type of power-drawing device within a household.

Advantages

A crucial advantage is that the process requires no sunlight. For 24 hours a day and 365 days a year, Neutrino Power Cubes can transform portions of energy into power, anywhere in the world. Neutrinovoltaic technology operates with complete independence from seasonal shifts or daily weather patterns. Neutrinos never stop colliding with the Earth, which means that neutrinovoltaic cells even work at night. Neutrinovoltaic cells can be scaled horizontally across a surface, such as a rooftop or a hillside, just like photovoltaic technology. Where these two energy collection technologies differ, however, is in their vertical scalability. When solar cells cannot be stacked over each other in order not to block their exposure to sun light, neutrinovoltaic cells, however, don't suffer from this design flaw, which means they can be stacked to any level with the bottom cells generating just as much electrical power as the cells on top. Neutrinovoltaic energy even operates underground. While most types of radiation are stopped by soil and rock, neutrinos pass directly through the Earth, and only a few materials are known to stop the movement of these ethereal particles. Neutrinovoltaic cells are compact, and they can be deployed anywhere either on the surface of the Earth or underground. Therefore, this technology also prevents the destruction of natural scenery caused by solar cells and wind farms.

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