Biorefinery, an example of a multiple products system. A biorefinery is a process of conversion of biomass and to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass.Rising oil prices day by day and unpredictability over the security of existing fossil reservoirs, combined with concerns onto tropical change, have created the require for new transportation fuels and for the production of bioproducts to substitute for fossil-based materials. Several biorefinery processes have been developed to produce biofuels and chemicals from the initial biomass feedstock of all the various forms energy.
Today’s there are economically bio based Bio- refineries are as:
- Whole Crop Biorefinery
- Green Biorefinery
- Lignocellulose Feedstock Biorefinery (LCF),(Third generation biorefinery and algae)
- The syngas Biorefinery
- Biogas Biorefinery
- The oil recovery Biorefinery
“Lignocellulose Feedstock Biorefinery” will most probably be thrust through with highest success due to in terms of eco-friendly, the Lignocellulose Feedstock biorefinery exhibit play a better role in environmental mainly in global warming potential due to CO2 fixation during acid fermentation.Lignocellulosic feedstock biorefinery producing biofuel and electricity.
A broad range of more evolution biorefining approaches are under blooming, including the manufacture of jet fuels and energy from domestic waste and the biorefining of algae to produce high value chemicals, energy and fuel products.Industrial biorefineries have been deduced as the most positive route to the creation of a new domestic biobased industry in the world. Industrial biotechnology deliver one crucial way by which biomass can be turninto marketable products, both facilitating biomass breakdown and the conversion of its components.By using biorefining technology to process agricultural residues and energy crops cultivated on marginal land, nonwood and non-food biomass could replace wood as the basis for papermaking and oil as the basis for liquid transportation fuels.
The Needs of India
The International Energy Agency (IEA)expects a rise in global oil needof 60% from 4,500 billion litres per annum in 2002 to 7,700 billion litres in 2030. India will be accountable for 68% of this increment (International Energy Agency, 2004a). Biofuels could exposition for 10% of all fuels by 2010, and for 20% by 2020, rising to 50% of a (reduced) consumption of transport fuels by 2050. India has a tremendous biomass prospective.Annually India consumed approximated 50 million metric tonnes of liquid fuel, but with the authentic biomass potential and its full utilization. Today India is the sixth largest country for energy demanding of the world in the field of biorefinery. Globally oil demand in India is presume to expand by a factor of 2.2 by 2030, increasing the oil import dependency from 69% now to 91% with the increasing number of vehicles between 2002 to 2020 (International Energy Agency, 2004a), gasoline demand will make up a substantial part of this increase.
India is about 40% energy each for domestic and cart sectors and 20 % for the industrial sectors. Globally bioenergy is being produced in major scale. Bioenergy is a part of renewable energy to help us to solve the energy disaster. India is one of the major energy consumers and take to initiate solve energy requirements with the production of various forms of energy. For the manufacture of industrial chemicals 10% is used and 90% of crude oil and gases is uses for the cart and other sectors, of biorefinery.
Source: International Energy Agency (IEA). 2004a. World Energy Outlook. OECD/IEA, Paris, France., Hoogwijk, B.M. and V.D. Broek. 2003. The contribution of biomass in the future global energy supply: A review of 17 studies. Biomass and Bioenergy, 25: 1-28