Organic Pesticides and Organic Fertilizers: Environmentally Friendly Alternatives Of Sustainable Farming

Vivek Kumar Chaturvedi and M.P. Singh, Centre of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad Allahabad-211002

2018-02-02 11:16:17



The agricultural sector plays an important role in speeding up the pace of economic development of developing countries in addition to meeting the food security needs of the growing population worldwide. There is not enough food and nutrition available for nearly one billion people worldwide. By 2050, it will be necessary to double the agricultural production to meet the needs of around 9 billion people worldwide. At present, almost 87 million people in the world are facing the crisis of hunger, most of which are marginal farmers. Under these circumstances agriculture production is also facing challenges such as water crisis, climate change and instability, which is causing the fear of deficit in food production. Since there is a possibility of providing food security, sustainable environment and economic opportunities at the global level, therefore, the world needs to create a new strategy for sustainable growth in agricultural production.

Importance of Organic fertilizer

Due to the adoption of green revolution techniques in the developing countries between 1960 and 2000 AD, increased production of hectare per hectare in a wide variety of agricultural crops, resulting in a 12-13% increase in food supply. Southeast Asia and India were the first in developing countries, where the green revolution affected the species of paddy. Similar trends in Asia show on the production of wheat and maize. In later days, the focus of genetic improvement in crops remained on high-yielding species, resulting in the reduction of the maturity period of many crops so that more and more crops started getting started. Corrective steps like fertilizer, irrigation and to some extent pesticides were also important components of the Green Revolution. Despite the success of the Green Revolution, poverty and food insecurity remained. It was estimated that by one percent increase in crop production in Asia, the number of poor was reduced by 0.48 percent. Poverty is still high in low-rainfall and marginalized adverse areas, because the initiative of the Green Revolution was also in the same favourable areas where the high production decreased from the 1980s. During this period, the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers to increase agricultural yield has put harmful effects on the environment such as soil fertility, stiffness of water, development of resistivity in pests, food chain and increase in toxic residues through animal feed.People in developing and developing countries seem to be increasing the trend towards organic products for food. That is why it is very important that best scientific knowledge and technology should be used to deal with the complex challenges of today's era.Bio fertilizers and bio-pesticides are a very important area in the face of durable ways to meet the challenges. Bio-pesticides are produced from certain minerals used in the control of natural materials such as animals, flora, bacteria, insects and microbes. By the beginning of 2013 there were about four hundred active ingredients used in bio-pesticides and there were about twelve hundred registered organic pesticide products. Bio-pesticides are divided into three sections - micro-organisms, insecticides, vegetable-made safety cover and biochemical insecticides, which are made from natural materials and which control pests with non-toxic system.

Agricultural scientists have preserved the bacterial-borne fertilizers to maintain the soil structure and fertilizer, while preserving the environment, which transmits nitrogen present in our environment through a special chemical process to plants. In addition, this bacterial fertilizer produces plants already present in phosphorus, potassium, magnesium etc., in the soil, making the nutrients soluble in water. Because these are all bacterial nature, so by using them, where the fertility of the land increases, on the other hand there is no bad effect on the soil structure of our ecosystem and land. It is known here that this organic fertilizer is not a substitute for chemical fertilizers but it is complementary to them. That is, these fertilizers are not used in place of chemical compost, but used with chemical fertilizers. Only then can they get more profit. On the one hand, while the increase in the productivity of chemical fertilizers, the yield of crops and the per hectare yield also increased.Many fertilizer companies are producing useful organic fertilizers such as rhizobium culture, Azotobacter, acetobactorand psm. The usage method of these organic fertilizers is being given here.

Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms(PSM)experiment: It is important that farmers have to spend most on phosphate chemical fertilizers. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of India's agricultural land lacks phosphorus. In fact, only about 37 percent of the chemical fertilizers used in the soil to meet the deficiency of phosphorus are used in the crop. The remaining part is lying unutilized under insoluble condition. With the use of PSM organic fertilizer, the plants already absorbed in the soil have been converted into insoluble phosphorus soluble condition. This organic fertilizer is used in all types of crops.

Azotobacter as bio fertilizer Bacteria: By this bacterial fertilization, being present in the area of ​​plant roots independently, plants are provided to the plants by stabilizing nitrogen of the environment. This bio fertilizer can be used equally in paddy, wheat, barley, oats, jowar, market, maize and all types of vegetables, flowers and fruits and other products like cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, jute paste etc.

Rhizobium Culture: The function of this bacterium is to absorb the nitrogen of the atmosphere and make it available to the plant. It is used for pulley crops. Use of special care is to ensure that these crops are used separately for special purposes. It can be used for all pulse crops like lentils, soybean, tur, moong, urad, gram, peas etc. The name of the crop for which it is to be used is written on the packet.

Aceto Bacteria: This organic compost is used specifically for cane. This organic fertilizer helps to save an average of 25 to 30 percent of the chemical fertilizers containing nitrogen. The use of sugarcane that is produced by its use has seen an increase of about 2% in the curry of sugar.

Global Scenario of Organic Pesticides & Organic Fertilizers:

Generally bio-pesticides are less toxic, they are affected only on the insects for which they are used, are also effective in very small amounts, are easily decomposed, so that there is less risk and this is a great extent. Do not pollution. When they are used as a component of integrated insect management, they control the maximum insects and the production of the crop remains high. Given the growing demand for the relics-free crop protection product, the demand of bio-pesticides will increase globally in the near future. The market of bio-pesticides is growing at the global level due to factors such as the growth of organic food market. Because the biological industry of the future is completely dependent on chemical free crop protection products to save crops. The market value of global bio-pesticides was estimated at $ 1.35 billion in 2011, which is expected to reach 3 billion in 2017. North American dominates the global market of bio-pesticides, which provided 40 percent of the world's global demand for bio-pesticides in 2011. Considering the increasing demand for bio products and strict rules regarding pesticides, there is the possibility of emerging as the largest market in Europe in the near future. Bio fertilizer is a major component of integrated nutrition management as it is a renewable source of cheap and nutritious plants, as well as chemical fertilization options for sustainable farming. These accelerate certain micro-organisms of soil so that the nutrients that take in the soil in the soil can stay for long periods of time. Organic fertilizers can be kept for a long time, there is no harm to the ecosystem, and they can tolerate temperatures of more than 45 degrees Celsius. Organic fertilizers are cheap alternatives and processing is also easy. With the trend of reducing reliance on chemical fertilizers around the world and environmental optimization of organic fertilizers, demand has increased in the last decade. The global market of bio-fertilizers is expected to reach up to 10 billion dollars by 2018.