FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols) are short-chain carbohydrates that occur naturally in many of the foods we eat. These particular types of carbohydrates share three important characteristics:
1. They are poorly absorbed in the intestine
2. Draw extra water into the intestine
3. Rapidly fermented by bacteria in the bowel.
Depending on the quantity consumed and an individual's tolerance, FODMAPs can lead to increased gassiness, bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The production of methane and hydrogen, the fermentation of short‐chain carbohydrates in the colon results in the production of short‐chain fatty acids. An important feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome is the heightened sensitivity of these patients to gut stimulation or distention, a condition termed visceral hypersensitivity.
Fructo-oligosaccharides (fructans)-Wheat, rye, onions, garlic, artichokes.
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)- baked bean, chickpea, lentil, red kidney bean, Lactose Milk: regular and low-fat cow, goat, and sheep milk; ice cream
Fructose- Honey, apple, clingstone peach, mango, nashi pear, pear, sugar snap pea, tinned fruit in natural juice, watermelon
Sorbitol- Apples, pears, stone fruits, sugar-free mints/gums
Mannitol- Mushrooms, cauliflower, sugar-free mints/gums
Source: doi: 10.1177/1756283X11436241, https://doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10108