From thousands of years ago, Ayurvedic medicines have been used by the saint of our country. It is mentioned in the book "CharakSanhita" written by Maharishi Charak. Mushroom is a nutritious foodhaving medicinal properties. People of China consider it as an important chemical that communicates with the supernatural power of life. Romans resemble mushrooms as God's diet. Malnutrition is one of the major problems in developing countries and people who suffer are mainly poorer and majority is children and pregnant women.
Edible mushrooms are good sources of energy. They are low in starch and lipids but rich inproteins. Due to high amount of proteins they can be used to bridge the malnutrition gap. Compared with vegetables, edible mushroom are high in protein and have a good balance of vitamins and minerals. Mushroom stands an important place in the food in terms ofhealth in the 21st century. Growing vegetables with attractive color, unbalanced amounts of chemical fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, or fast-growing hormones etc. are used, which are harmful to human health. The chemical elements reach our body with these vegetables, which gradually weaken the immune system. Therefore, the utility of mushroom is increasing in this context.
Nutritional aspect of edible mushroom:
The protein present in mushroom is found to be approximately 22-35 % which is much higher than the protein obtained from plants and it serves as the mediator of sugars and animal proteins. In mushroom, 0.3-0.4 % of fat content is found and the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, is present which takes part in biosynthesis of prostaglandin. About 100 grams of mushroom give about 35 calories of energy. 4-5 % carbohydrate is found in mushrooms, in which manitol 0.9, Hemicellulose 0.91, glycogen 0.5 % is found exclusively.Due to the very low levels of sugar in the mushrooms and 0.5 % of the starch, it is considered as a good diet for diabetic person. Due to low amount of sugar, cholesterol and high amount of nutritious fibres, it is an ideal diet for old age, as well as it is proved useful in keeping healthy our digestive system.All the amino acids, such as leucin, methionine, isoleusin, lysine, thiamine, tryptophan, valine, histidine and arginine etc. are present in the mushroom, which are not abundant in pulses. The essential amino acid, lysine is present in the mushroom in high amounts, which is very important for the human body. Mushrooms have been found to be very useful in all stages including pregnant women, childhood, puberty and old age. It protects childhood and youth from malnutrition due to the availability of proteins, vitamins, minerals, fats and carbohydrate. In mushrooms all major minerals like calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sulphur, iron, copper, iodine and zinc are found in abundance which is good for health. These minerals actively contribute to the function of the bones, muscles and body. Mushroom has the availability of folic acid which is obtained only from non-vegetarian food. Therefore, due to iron elements and folic acid, it is the best diet for most women and children, who are victims of blood loss. People suffering from blood deficiency, mushroom helps maintain blood haemoglobin level in them.
Clinical application of edible mushroom:
Mushroom contains many bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides and polysaccharide- protein complexes. These bioactive compounds cause no harm, no additional stress on the body. Extracted polysaccharides β glucan family from various edible mushrooms show anticancerous activity in different human Colorectal, renal, breast,leukaemia, oral, gastric and cervical cancer cell lines. Researchers prove that Edible mushroom contains many bioactive compound nutrients which takes part in bone metabolism and prevent osteoporosis. Secondary metabolites of mushroom such as phenolics, steroids, terpenes and essential cell wall components have protective effects against liver dysfunction. Diabetes is a chronic disease causing several health problems to millions of people worldwide and has become a domestic disease. Researchers prove that secondary metabolites are bioactive compounds in mushroom which decreases the level of high blood sugar in diabetic persons. Edible mushroom are used as a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease is marked by the presence of high level of low- density lipoprotein (LDL). Mushroom ethanol extract of Pleurotuseryngii (Eringi), and Hypsizygusmarmoreus (Bunashimeji) decrease blood LDL, high cholesterol level and used as biomarker for atherosclerosis. Mushroom extract decreases the level of rheumatoid arthritis, which is a common severe joint disease and often leads to disabilityand inflammation in joints due to which it may lose its shape and their normal function. Extracts of dried powder of Pleurotusflorida administration to high cholesterol diets fed rats, inhibits their weight gain, reduction of total cholesterol.With the increasing problems of pollution and malnutrition, the cultivation of edible mushrooms may be the only current solution for recycling organic waste that combines the production of protein rich food with the reduction of environmental pollution.