{"title":"Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe","authors":"P. Gunnasegaran, M. Z. Abdullah, M. Z. Yusoff, Nur Irmawati","volume":106,"journal":"International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering","pagesStart":1830,"pagesEnd":1836,"ISSN":"1307-6892","URL":"https:\/\/publications.waset.org\/pdf\/10002892","abstract":"This study presents experimental and optimization of\r\nnanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total\r\nthermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PCCPU\r\ncooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with\r\nparticle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is\r\nconsidered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental\r\ndesign and optimization is accomplished by the design of\r\nexperimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The\r\nresults show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat\r\ninput have significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat\r\ninput, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the\r\nnanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter.\r\nIt is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is\r\nincreased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the\r\nobjective of minimizing the Rth, using Design-Expert software, and\r\nthe optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are\r\n0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance\r\nbeing 2.66 (\u00baC\/W).","references":"[1] D. X. Gai, Z. C. Liu, W. Liu, and J. G. Yang, \u201cOperational\r\ncharacteristics of miniature loop heat pipe with flat evaporator,\u201d Heat\r\nand Mass Transfer, vol. 46, pp. 267-275, 2009.\r\n[2] Yu. F. Maydanik, \u201cLoop heat pipes,\u201d Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.\r\n25, pp. 635-657, 2005.\r\n[3] S. U. S. Choi, \u201cEnhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with\r\nnanoparticles,\u201d in Developments Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows,\r\nFED-vol. 231\/MD-vol. 66, ASME: 99-105, edited by D. A. Siginer and\r\nH. P. Wang, New York, 1995.\r\n[4] M. Shafahi, V. Bianco, K. Vafai, and O. Manca, \u201cThermal performance\r\nof flat-shaped heat pipes using nanofluids,\u201d Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,\r\nvol. 53, pp. 1438\u20131445, 2010.\r\n[5] M. Shafahi, V. Bianco, K. Vafai, and O. Manca, \u201cAn investigation of the\r\nthermal performance of cylindrical heat pipes using nanofluids,\u201d Int. J.\r\nHeat Mass Transfer, vol. 53, pp. 376\u2013383, 2010.\r\n[6] K. H. Do and S. P. Jang, \u201cEffect of nanofluids on the thermal\r\nperformance of a flat micro heat pipe with a rectangular grooved wick,\u201d\r\nInt. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 53, pp. 2183\u20132192, 2010.\r\n[7] P. Naphon, D. Thongkum, and P. Assadamongkol, \u201cHeat pipe efficiency\r\nenhancement with refrigerant-nanoparticles mixtures,\u201d Energy\r\nConversion and Management, vol. 50, pp. 772-776, 2009.\r\n[8] G. Franchi and X. Huang, \u201cDevelopment of Composite Wicks for Heat\r\nPipe Performance Enhancement,\u201d Heat Transfer Engineering, vol. 29\r\n(10), pp. 873-884, 2008.\r\n[9] D. Bas and I. H. Boyaci, \u201cModeling and optimization in usability of\r\nResponse Surface Methodology (RSM),\u201d Journal of Food Engineering,\r\nvol. 78, pp. 836-845, 2007.\r\n[10] M. J. K. Bashir, H. A. Aziz, M. S. Yusoff, and M. N. Adlan,\r\n\u201cApplication of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for optimization\r\nof Ammoniacal Nitrogen removal from semi-aerobic landfill leachate\r\nusing ion exchange resin,\u201d Desalination, vol. 254, pp. 154-161, 2010.\r\n[11] D. C. Montgomery, \u201cDesign and analysis of experiments,\u201d 7th Edition,\r\nJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2008.\r\n[12] J. Qu and H. Wu, \u201cThermal performance comparison of oscillating heat\r\npipes with SiO2\/water and Al2\r\nO3\/water nanofluids,\u201d International\r\nJournal of Thermal Sciences, vol. 50, pp. 1954-1962, 2011.\r\n[13] Design-Expert Software Trial Version 6.0.7, User\u2019s guide, 2008.","publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 106, 2015"}