History Of Biosensors

Credit: Michigan State University

Biosensors are currentlyuniversal in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as environmental monitoring, monitoring of treatment and disease progression, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide variety of methods can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies.

  • 1916:- First report on the immobilization of protein; adsorption of invertase on activated charcoal.
  • 1922:- First glass pH electrode.
  • 1956:- Invention of the oxygen electrode.
  • 1962:- First description biosensor; an amperometric enzyme electrode for glucose.
  • 1969:- Guilbault and Montalvo – First potentiometric biosensor urease immobilized on an ammonia electrode to detect urea.
  • 1972-75:- First commercial biosensor: Yellow springs instruments glucose biosensor.
  • 1976:- First bedside artificial pancreas (miles).
  • 1980:- First fiber optic pH sensor for in vivo blood gases (Peterson).
  • 1982:- First fiber optic based biosensor for glucose.
  • 1983:- First Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor.
  • 1984:- First mediated amperometric biosensor; ferrocene used with glucose oxidase for glucose detection.
  • 1987:- Blood glucose biosensor launched by MediSense Exactech.
  • 1990:- SPR based biosensor by Pharmacia BIACore.
  • 1992:- Hand held blood biosensor by i- STAT.
  • 1996:- Launching of Glucocard 1998; blood glucose biosensor launch by LifeScan Fast Take.
  • 1998:- Roche Diagnostics by Merger of Roche and Boehringer Mannheim.
  • 2001:- Life scan purchase Inverness medical’s glucose testing business for $1.3 billion.
  • 2003:- i-STAT acquired by Abbott for $39.2 million.
  • 2004:- Abbott acquires Therasense for $1.2 billion.
  • 2012:-Acetylcholinesterase inhibition based biosensor.
  • 2013:- Hydrogel (polyacrylamide) and quartz crystal biosensor.
  • 2014:- Piezoelectric biosensor, silicon biosensor, HbA1C biosensor.
  • 2015:-Microbial fuel cell based biosensor.
  • 2011-2015:- Nanomaterial based biosensor.
  • 2013-2015:- Uric acid biosensor.
  • CURRENT:- Quantom dots, nanoparticles, nanowire, nanotube, etc.

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